Functions of Endocrine Glands and their Disorders

Functions of Endocrine Glands and Disorders


1) Pituitary Gland:


  1. i) It is known as master gland.


  1. ii) In addition it has hormones, it control the action of other endocrine glands.


iii) It is closely associated with base of brain in skull.


  1. iv) Its size is little larger than a pea.


  1. v) It has two lobes. Anterior lobe and Posterior Lobe.


  1. vi) Anterior lobe produces growth promoting hormones. It also takes part in the activities of reproductive organs. It also control some adrenal glands.


vii) Posterior lobe produces two glands. ADH conserves water according to requirement.


2) Thyroid Gland:


  1. i) It is located in the neck.


  1. ii) It produces two types of hormones.
  2. Thyroxin increase the consumption of oxygen by the body. This increase the rate of metabolism.
  3. Calcitonin increases the ability of a person to think.


iii) Accurate supply of these hormones is also necessary for proper growth.

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  1. iv) Goiter is caused due to malfunction of thyroid gland. This is mainly cause due to deficiency of iodine.


3) Parathyroid Gland:


  1. i) They are present in the back side of thyroid gland.


  1. ii) These are very small structures and usually four in number.


iii) They produce parathyroid hormone which control the amount of calcium and phosphate in blood serum.


4) Pancreas:


  1. i) It is present in the abdominal cavity near stomach.


  1. ii) It hormones is called islets of Langerhans which produce two hormones.
  2. Insulin is increased when amount of sugar is increased in blood.


  1. Glucagon is a hormone, which maintains the sugar level in body.


5) Adrenal Glands:


  1. i) They are present in abdominal cavity above the kidneys.


  1. ii) Adrenal produce adrenaline hormone which prepare the body for action in an emergency by raising blood pressure, increasing heart rate and breathing rate.
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6) Gonads:


Gonads are of two types:


  1. a) Male Gonad or Testes:


  1. i) They produce male hormones called androgens.


  1. ii) They help to develop secondary sex characters in males e. g. growth of mustaches and beard on face, development of pubic hear, masculine characters, low pitch of voice, sperm production etc.


  1. b) Female Gonad or Ovaries:


  1. i) They produce female hormones called estrogen.


  1. ii) They control development of secondary sex characters in females e.g. development of breasts, development of pubic hairs, feminine characteristics, high pitch of voice, causes of lining of uterus to thicken.


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