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How to Calculate Fuel Consumption KM I & How to Reduce it?

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6 most dangerous roads in the world

How to Calculate Fuel Consumption: The government promised to contain the rise in prices for gasoline and diesel in 2023, limiting itself to indexing to the level of inflation. We figure out whether it is possible to save on refueling and what affects fuel consumption

Table of Contents

What affects fuel consumption

Fuel consumption , gasoline and diesel, is measured in liters per 100 kilometers (l / 100 km). Diesel internal combustion engines , other things being equal, are less voracious. Manufacturers usually indicate three options for fuel consumption: in the city, on the highway (at a steady speed of about 90 km / h, is the smallest) and medium. But laboratory and real data often diverge, and the on-board computer cannot always be trusted.

Fuel consumption tends to vary over a fairly wide range depending on:

  • on the quality of the fuel;
  • state of the engine. A poorly adjusted, worn out engine will definitely not please with low fuel consumption;
  • ambient temperature. An internal combustion engine that has not been warmed up to the optimum temperature for a long time consumes more fuel;
  • car loading. The heavier the load, the higher the fuel consumption;
  • tire pressure. Even slightly under-inflated tires create increased rolling resistance with understandable consequences;
  • traffic. “Plug” mode with frequent use of lower gears in the transmission provokes increased fuel consumption;
    the nature of the coverage. Loose soil, snow, sand, ice that causes slipping – all these are factors that adversely affect efficiency;
  • terrain. To overcome steep climbs, it is necessary to increase the load on the engine, and hence the fuel consumption;
  • aerodynamics. So, installation on the roof of the trunk significantly increases the air resistance that the car has to overcome, which cannot but affect the economy for the worse;
  • driving manners. The gas-brake or gas-to-the-floor style whenever possible is a surefire way to quickly empty your fuel tank.
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As a result, the actual fuel consumption may differ from the declared one by 30-40% and even significantly more on heavy off-road or during long-term driving at a speed close to the maximum for this model. In normal conditions, such indicators are a clear sign of a car malfunction.

How to calculate fuel consumption

Nevertheless, the use of the above methodology is the lot of specialists. An ordinary motorist, when calculating fuel consumption, will go in a simpler, empirical way:

  • Fill up a full tank of fuel.
  • Reset the odometer.
  • Use the filled fuel until the low level indicator turns on.
  • Record the mileage travelled.
  • Fill the tank full again and record how much fuel went into it.

Take a calculator and calculate the fuel consumption using the formula: (volume of refueling No. 2 / mileage traveled at gas station No. 1) × 100 = consumption (l / 100 km)
Example: a car traveled 720 km after the first refueling, and then 50 liters of fuel entered the tank. Then the consumption will be (50 / 720) × 100 = 6.94 l / 100 km.

For greater accuracy, it is better to fill in fuel using a measuring container or take several measurements, and then calculate the arithmetic average. In the same way, you can calculate separately the fuel consumption in urban mode and on the highway, and then determine the efficiency in the combined cycle using the formula:

(highway mileage x highway mileage + city mileage x city mileage) / total mileage = combined mileage.

Example: On the highway to the city 37 km, and fuel consumption is 6.2 l / 100 km. The length of the route in the city is 18 km, and the consumption is 8.3 l / 100 km. Then in the combined cycle, fuel consumption will be (6.2 × 37 + 8.3 × 18) / 55 = 6.89 l / 100 km

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How to reduce fuel consumption

  • No shaman spells. The recommendations are the simplest:
  • Carry out maintenance according to the regulations of good craftsmen.
  • Refuel at trusted gas stations.
  • Regularly check tire pressure and be sure to perform this procedure with significant temperature fluctuations.
  • Avoid hard accelerations and use higher gears in the transmission whenever possible.
  • In cold weather, insulate the engine so that it cools down more slowly during short stops.
  • Remove the roof rack when not in use.

Automobile

What are the types of car batteries?

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car stuck in water

Now on the market there are many different types of car batteries. Experts divide them into several categories, which have their pros and cons.

Table of Contents

Types of car batteries

Acid batteries

Classic acid batteries are available on the market in the following versions.

Serviced – these are the same batteries with plugs in the lid, through which you can check the density of the electrolyte and add boiled water to the level. It should be noted that the presence of plugs is due precisely to the tendency of this type of battery to boil away, this is due to the high content of antimony in the composition of their lead plates.

Maintenance free / low maintenance – these batteries are now the majority of those on the market. They have a significantly reduced antimony content, as a result of which the water does not boil away so intensively, and during their operation there is no need to add it.

Ca / Ca technology is a battery in which calcium is added to the lead alloy instead of antimony. This replacement was another step to reduce the rate of water boiling off. Also, the change of the element had a positive effect on the efficiency of the battery and its energy intensity.

But these batteries are not on the market in such a volume as those listed above, and this is primarily due to their high price compared to their antimony counterparts, as well as their hypersensitivity to overdischarge (it is enough to forget to turn off the headlights five or six times for a long time, and the battery can be thrown away, it will not restore its energy intensity).

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Hybrid is a mixture of the previous types: antimony is applied to the positive electrodes, and calcium is applied to the negative ones. This decision made it possible to find a golden mean: water does not boil away as much as antimony ones, but at the same time they are not as sensitive to overdischarge as calcium ones.

Gel batteries

The next type is gel batteries (AMG). As their name implies, they do not have a liquid electrolyte, as in the classic ones, here it is presented in the form of a gel. This type has a lot of advantages: there is no boiling of water and, as a result, the plates do not crumble, it is airtight, which is important in various motorcycle and water equipment, their service life is about ten years. Of the minuses, this, again, is the high price and poor electrical conductivity of the gel at strong sub-zero temperatures.

Alkaline batteries

Alkaline batteries – again, the name speaks for itself: instead of an acid solution, alkaline batteries are used in such batteries. These batteries are insensitive to overdischarge, work perfectly in severe frost and accumulate energy better. But almost all these pluses overlap with one minus: they are very bulky, because. they require more sections to achieve the same voltage as the acid ones.

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Automobile

How and when to change spark plugs?

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car stuck in water

The current motor experts are trying to give the satisfactory answer for how to and when to change spark plugs

Table of Contents

How to change spark plugs?

Replacement of candles is recommended to be carried out in accordance with the manufacturer’s regulations and, of course, based on the variety of candles. To do this, insert a candle key and unscrew the candle. The main thing is that there is no o-ring left in the candle well, which should be located on the base of the candle.

When to change spark plugs?

If ordinary nickel candles have a resource of 20 thousand km, then iridium ones easily “nourish” up to 100 thousand km – this is about five years of operation.

It is important to consider that the following factors affect the performance and service life of spark plugs: the condition of the power unit, driving style and fuel quality. Drivers are advised to check the spark plugs at each MOT.

This will help keep the engine running properly and also avoid major repairs. A lot can be said by the condition of the spark plug – both about the state of the engine itself (whether there is oil consumption), or about the state of the power supply system. Diagnostics will allow timely maintenance and avoid costly car repairs.

Spark plugs can be removed both on a warm and cold engine. There are no temperature recommendations from any manufacturer.

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What rules must be observed when replacing?

When replacing spark plugs, it is important to follow the manufacturer’s recommended tightening torque. Compliance with the tightening torque is possible only with the use of a special tool – a torque wrench. Failure to tighten the torque, as a rule, leads to damage to the candle itself and a reduction in its service life. It can also lead to damage to the components of the ignition system and even serious engine damage.

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Automobile

Top 7 best cars for drifting 2023

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Top 7 best cars for drifting 2023

best cars for drifting: Drifting is one of the most incendiary disciplines of motorsport. And one of the most democratic. But, as always, there is not enough room at the top for everyone. We offer our selection of top drift cars

Table of Contents

What is Drift

Drifting (drifting) is a motorsport discipline in which pilots compete on winding roads in the ability to quickly drive a car in a controlled skid. It is believed that drifting originated among the youth of Japan in the 1970s, although Enzo Ferrari called the founder of this style the great racer Tazio Nuvolari, who practiced drifting in the first half of the 20th century.

Today, drifting is a global phenomenon. Amateur and professional level competitions are held both in the warm season and in winter.

Drift car design requirements

Drift cars have two key requirements:

the ability to easily enter turns and skid;
ability to maintain control at high speed.

From a technical point of view, this is provided by:

selection of the optimal type of drive. Rear axle drive is considered a classic. Drifting on a full drive requires more serious professional skills. The least effective for drifting is front-wheel drive, which involves the active and competent use of the handbrake;

a high torque motor that usually goes in tandem with a lot of power. A common choice for professional drift cars is a turbo engine. At the same time, the internal combustion engine that gives all the best must be reliable and, in particular, withstand high temperatures;

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blocking of the cross-axle differential (often it is simply welded) – it helps to realize the traction capabilities of the engine when unloading in the turn of one of the drive wheels;

front-engine vehicle layout. Loaded steerable front wheels have better grip, which allows you to more accurately control the car;

long wheelbase. Thanks to it, it is easier to control the car with a sharp change in skid directions;

low ground clearance. The low center of gravity also improves handling. That is why top drift cars come from sports sedans or coupes;

low vehicle weight. A light car is more likely to skid. In this regard, when preparing a drift car, many minor structural elements are removed or replaced with analogues from such lightweight materials as fiberglass or carbon fiber;

optimal weight distribution along the axes (40:60% for rear-wheel drive models);

stiff enough to reduce rolls of the suspension;

not afraid of high loads enduring brake system with large diameter ventilated discs, reinforced hoses, using high-quality synthetic brake fluid;

wear-resistant tires;

a low location of a fairly rigid pilot’s seat with developed lateral support. This “seat” allows you to better feel the car.
Finally, to ensure safety, a six-point frame is installed in the cabin of the best cars for drifting.

Drift car rating

With a limited budget for a best cars for drifting, you can use the VAZ classic or the rear-wheel drive Ford Sierra that has changed its fourth decade as a drift car. Ordinary front-wheel drive with sufficiently powerful engines can also be a pleasure, especially on a slippery track, and with plywood placed under the locked rear wheels, even on dry pavement. But if we talk about the big leagues, then, of course, there will be a fair number of Japanese models, sometimes designed specifically with an eye on drifting.

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